By Ben Sandmel
The Mardi Gras Indians are African-American men who form groups known as tribes. These tribes function as neighborhood social clubs, yet they also have a serious cultural mission. They parade in New Orleans – principally on Mardi Gras Day, but also on other occasions, including second-line parades and selected funerals. They strut, chant, play drums and other forms of percussion (instruments or found objects), and engage in ritualized mock battles with other tribes.
Mardi Gras Indians display elaborate and intricately hand-sewn costumes that are often emblazoned with fanciful depictions of Native American life – hence the name Indians – in tribute to indigenous populations that sheltered beleaguered slaves in the earliest days of New Orleans. These costumes are known as “suits” and the act of wearing one and parading in it is known as “masking Indian.” Mardi Gras Indian suits are made by hand at communal sewing sessions that may start right after Mardi Gras Day and continue throughout the following year. There are approximately forty Mardi Gras Indian tribes in New Orleans.
It is generally agreed that the Mardi Gras Indian tradition has strong Afro-Caribbean folk roots. Many observers and scholars perceive specific parallels with costumes and music of the junkanoo parades of the Bahamas and some street celebrations in Haiti. In a broader sense, the Mardi Gras Indians represent one of many reflections of New Orleans’ on-going status as an epicenter of African cultural retention in America. The Indians utilize many shared traits of African and African-American music, include call-and-response, syncopation, polyrhythm with a unifying timeline, melisma, the encouragement of spontaneity, and the extremely porous boundary between performers and audiences.
There is considerable debate, however, about the Mardi Gras Indians’ exact origins. One scenario, popular among Mardi Gras Indians themselves, attributes their existence to the fact that some Native Americans in Louisiana gave shelter to runaway slaves. In forming tribes, the slaves’ descendants are showing gratitude for such aid and comfort. This may not be the only source of the Mardi Gras Indians’ emergence, however. Another thesis partially attributes the tradition to the historical fact that Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show spent the winter of 1884 – 1885 in New Orleans and that a troupe of Plains Indians from Cody’s show marched in a Mardi Gras parade in 1885. (This was also the first year that a Mardi Gras Indian tribe, the Creole Wild West, took to the streets of New Orleans.) Cody’s show was massively popular in its day, comparable to a hit movie or television series, although its demeaning stereotypes would be quite passé by contemporary standards. Because the show was, in large part, an exploitive depiction of Native American culture – implicitly based upon subjugation and genocide – the idea of Cody’s influence offends many who view the Mardi Gras Indians as a symbol of interaction between escaped slaves and nurturing Native Americans.
It is conceivable that all of the above-mentioned sources were contributing factors to the Mardi Gras Indian tradition, with the Afro-Caribbean folk roots having the deepest significance by far. Cody’s influence would appear limited to the names that the Mardi Gras Indians gave to their tribes. These names – including the Golden Sioux, the Apache Hunters, the Ninth Ward Navajos, the Young Sons of Geronimo – mainly derived from the Western tribes whose culture Cody co-opted, rather than the Louisiana tribes such as the Houma, or Chitimacha who would actually have taken in escaped slaves. The debate about the origins of the Mardi Gras Indians continues with no consensus.
However, the Mardi Gras Indian tradition…